Marble Surface

General Gynaecology 

Assessing menstrual disorders, ovarian cysts, menopause

Ovarian Cysts

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Ovarian cyst is a fluid - filled pouch in the ovary.  There are many types of ovarian cysts and these range from a benign cyst, to a borderline cyst for ovarian cancer and ovarian cancer cyst.

It is best that you see a doctor/ specialist when you been diagnosed with a cyst on ultrasound scan.

You may need to do more blood test and more scans such as CT scan or MRI scan.

Simple cysts can be monitor over time and rescan.

Complex cysts mostly needing removal and send to the lab for testing to rule out cancer cells.

These cysts are commonly removed by laparoscopy method.

Abnormal menstrual bleeding

Abnormal menstrual bleeding includes period lasting too many days, cycles are too short and come too often, bleeding heavily (more than 40mL per month), bleeding infrequent or no bleeding for a long period of time.

Basic investigations involves blood tests and baseline ultrasound scan.

Causes involves:

-  hormonal imbalance

-  uterine fibroids

-  endometrial polyps

-   endometrial cancer

-  medical conditions such as thyroid, blood thinning pills

Treatment options involves:

1/  Medical treatments:  Combine contraceptive pills, progesterone pill, Depo Provera, Mirena, Transexamic acid

2/  Surgical options:  endometrial ablation, laparoscopic hysterectomy.


Menopause is when you stop your period for 12 months.  This happens when your ovaries stop releasing eggs or the oestrogen level falls when your ovaries have been removed.

The average age of menopause is around 45-55 years old.

If it occurs before the age of 40 years old then it is known as premature menopause or premature ovarian insufficiency.

The time before your last period where your oestrogen levels are falling is called the perimenopause.  This can last for a few months or for several years before your period finally ends.

The most common symptoms are:

-  hot flushes

-  night sweats

-  vaginal dryness

-  low mood and/or feeling anxious

-  joint and muscle pain

-  loss of interest in having sex.

Treatment involves non medical method, non HRT medications or HT medications.